The study of matter and energy.

It’s physic, the science that studies about matter and energy. Those two words almost include basically everything.

Energy: means every element can cause motions. Or in short, create power, supplies for daily living activities.

Matter: A general term, include everything from the tiniest atomic organization to the cosmic-scale galaxy.

Seems simple enough, but members of these groups below are almost every factor that create the world.

1. Matter:

Thus complicated sound, matters can be easily divided into 3 forms: Plasma, solids, liquids, and gases; based on the behaviors of microscopic particles that form them.

a. Solids:

In a solid form, constituent particles are closely packed together. The links between particles are so strong that the particles cannot move freely but can only vibrate. As a result, a solid has a stable, definite shape, and a definite volume. Solids can only change their shape by force, as when broken or cut.

b. Liquids:

This is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure. The volume is definite if the temperature and pressure are constant.

When a solid is heated above its melting point, it becomes liquid, given that the pressure is higher than the triple point of the substance. Intermolecular (or interatomic or interionic) forces are still important, but the molecules have enough energy to move relative to each other and the structure is mobile. This means that the shape of a liquid is not definite but is determined by its container.

The volume is usually greater than that of the corresponding solid, the best known exception being water, H2O. The highest temperature at which a given liquid can exist is its critical temperature.

c. Gas:

A gas is a compressible fluid. Not only will a gas conform to the shape of its container but it will also expand to fill the container.

In a gas, the molecules have enough kinetic energy so that the effect of intermolecular forces is small (or zero for an ideal gas), and the typical distance between neighboring molecules is much greater than the molecular size. A gas has no definite shape or volume, but occupies the entire container in which it is confined. A liquid may be converted to a gas by heating at constant pressure to the boiling point, or else by reducing the pressure at constant temperature.

At temperatures below its critical temperature, a gas is also called a vapor, and can be liquefied by compression alone without cooling. A vapor can exist in equilibrium with a liquid (or solid), in which case the gas pressure equals the vapor pressure of the liquid (or solid).

A supercritical fluid is a gas whose temperature and pressure are above the critical temperature and critical pressure respectively. In this state, the distinction between liquid and gas disappears. A supercritical fluid has the physical properties of a gas, but its high density confers solvent properties in some cases, which leads to useful applications. For example, supercritical carbon dioxide is used to extract caffeine in the manufacture of decaffeinated coffee.

d. Plasma:

Like a gas, plasma does not have definite shape or volume. Unlike gases, plasmas are electrically conductive, produce magnetic fields and electric currents, and respond strongly to electromagnetic forces. Positively charged nuclear swim in a "sea" of freely-moving disassociated electrons, similar to the way such charges exist in conductive metal, where this electron "sea" allows matter in the plasma state to conduct electricity.

The plasma state is often misunderstood, and although not freely existing under normal conditions on Earth, it is quite commonly generated by either lightning, electric sparks, fluorescent lights, neon lights or in plasma televisions. Also plasma appears in some types of flame, the Sun's corona, and stars are all examples of illuminated matter in the plasma state.

2. Energy:

In physics, energy is the property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object. In short, the capacity of doing work. Energy has two forms, including: potential and kinetic energy.

a. Potential energy:

Potential energy is the energy possessed the power within itself. For example, the work of an elastic force is called elastic potential energy; work of the gravitational force is called gravitational potential energy; work of the electronic force is called electric potential energy; work of the strong nuclear force or weak nuclear force acting on the baryon charge is called nuclear potential energy; work of intermolecular forces is called intermolecular potential energy.

b. Kinetic energy:

Kinetic energy is the energy associated with the movement of objects. Although there are many forms of kinetic energy, this type of energy is often associated with the movement of larger objects. For example, thermal energy exists because of the movement of atoms or molecules, thus thermal energy is a variation of kinetic energy.

However, most of the time, kinetic energy refers to the energy associated with the movement of larger objects. Therefore, if an object is not moving, it is said to have zero kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of an object depends on both its mass and velocity, with its velocity playing a much greater role.

For example: An airplane has a large amount of kinetic energy in flight due to its large mass and fast velocity. A baseball thrown by a pitcher, although having a small mass, can have a large amount of kinetic energy due to its fast velocity. A downhill skier traveling down a hill has a large amount of kinetic energy because of their mass and high velocity.

Conclusion:

The study of matter and energy in years has contributed so many to the achievement of many important industry of the modern world. Without physics, or its study, even the lighting bulb in your house wouldn’t have been existed.