The study of matter and energy.

It’s physic, the science that studies about matter and energy. Those two words almost include basically everything.

Energy: means every element can cause motions. Or in short, create power, supplies for daily living activities.

Matter: A general term, include everything from the tiniest atomic organization to the cosmic-scale galaxy.

Seems simple enough, but members of these groups below are almost every factor that create the world.

1. Matter:

Thus complicated sound, matters can be easily divided into 3 forms: Plasma, solids, liquids, and gases; based on the behaviors of microscopic particles that form them.

a. Solids:

In a solid form, constituent particles are closely packed together. The links between particles are so strong that the particles cannot move freely but can only vibrate. As a result, a solid has a stable, definite shape, and a definite volume. Solids can only change their shape by force, as when broken or cut.

b. Liquids:

This is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure. The volume is definite if the temperature and pressure are constant.

When a solid is heated above its melting point, it becomes liquid, given that the pressure is higher than the triple point of the substance. Intermolecular (or interatomic or interionic) forces are still important, but the molecules have enough energy to move relative to each other and the structure is mobile. This means that the shape of a liquid is not definite but is determined by its container.

The volume is usually greater than that of the corresponding solid, the best known exception being water, H2O. The highest temperature at which a given liquid can exist is its critical temperature.

c. Gas:

A gas is a compressible fluid. Not only will a gas conform to the shape of its container but it will also expand to fill the container.

In a gas, the molecules have enough kinetic energy so that the effect of intermolecular forces is small (or zero for an ideal gas), and the typical distance between neighboring molecules is much greater than the molecular size. A gas has no definite shape or volume, but occupies the entire container in which it is confined. A liquid may be converted to a gas by heating at constant pressure to the boiling point, or else by reducing the pressure at constant temperature.

At temperatures below its critical temperature, a gas is also called a vapor, and can be liquefied by compression alone without cooling. A vapor can exist in equilibrium with a liquid (or solid), in which case the gas pressure equals the vapor pressure of the liquid (or solid).

A supercritical fluid is a gas whose temperature and pressure are above the critical temperature and critical pressure respectively. In this state, the distinction between liquid and gas disappears. A supercritical fluid has the physical properties of a gas, but its high density confers solvent properties in some cases, which leads to useful applications. For example, supercritical carbon dioxide is used to extract caffeine in the manufacture of decaffeinated coffee.

d. Plasma:

Like a gas, plasma does not have definite shape or volume. Unlike gases, plasmas are electrically conductive, produce magnetic fields and electric currents, and respond strongly to electromagnetic forces. Positively charged nuclear swim in a "sea" of freely-moving disassociated electrons, similar to the way such charges exist in conductive metal, where this electron "sea" allows matter in the plasma state to conduct electricity.

The plasma state is often misunderstood, and although not freely existing under normal conditions on Earth, it is quite commonly generated by either lightning, electric sparks, fluorescent lights, neon lights or in plasma televisions. Also plasma appears in some types of flame, the Sun's corona, and stars are all examples of illuminated matter in the plasma state.

2. Energy:

In physics, energy is the property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object. In short, the capacity of doing work. Energy has two forms, including: potential and kinetic energy.

a. Potential energy:

Potential energy is the energy possessed the power within itself. For example, the work of an elastic force is called elastic potential energy; work of the gravitational force is called gravitational potential energy; work of the electronic force is called electric potential energy; work of the strong nuclear force or weak nuclear force acting on the baryon charge is called nuclear potential energy; work of intermolecular forces is called intermolecular potential energy.

b. Kinetic energy:

Kinetic energy is the energy associated with the movement of objects. Although there are many forms of kinetic energy, this type of energy is often associated with the movement of larger objects. For example, thermal energy exists because of the movement of atoms or molecules, thus thermal energy is a variation of kinetic energy.

However, most of the time, kinetic energy refers to the energy associated with the movement of larger objects. Therefore, if an object is not moving, it is said to have zero kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of an object depends on both its mass and velocity, with its velocity playing a much greater role.

For example: An airplane has a large amount of kinetic energy in flight due to its large mass and fast velocity. A baseball thrown by a pitcher, although having a small mass, can have a large amount of kinetic energy due to its fast velocity. A downhill skier traveling down a hill has a large amount of kinetic energy because of their mass and high velocity.

Conclusion:

The study of matter and energy in years has contributed so many to the achievement of many important industry of the modern world. Without physics, or its study, even the lighting bulb in your house wouldn’t have been existed.

 

Game of Energy - Agreat board game

Game of Energy is a board game which is highly thematic euro game of medium-light complexity. The principle mechanics are tile placement and resource management. The game is for 1 to 4 players, and usually lasts around 30-60 minutes.In general, it was fun to play comes with the science in it was sound. This is game over for everybody.

You can see more: Energy Hog Game

In this game, countries as well as civilized society will reverse virtually every night as citizens have to deal with the loss of a modern-day vital resource. A resource needed for communication and commerce. A resource needed for life-sustaining technology. That resource is energy.

Your role is to compete with other players to win the contract and make sure that your company will become the #1 global energy power for years later.The government industry allows by using energy credits allotted by the United Nations Council for aligning yourself to the objectives of their environment.

The industries will continually increase the energy credits you are allotted, the terawatt-hours also rises, you company will also generate the TWh. And it is final out-performing your opponents and hitting the optimal level of terawatt-hours that will win you the U.N. contract then win you the game! This sound pretty simple rules, but in-depth strategy.

The below link will help you to understand the stories and how to setup of game :

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P8BmzRwG_uM

Click the following links if you want to get more details about gameplay of the base game https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2R3POrQSg-I

There exist alternate rules in the game, can apply for Solo, that also allows for any (or all) of the following:

  • Changing "take that" effects in the game (for a pure euro experience)
  • Different goals for 2, 3, or 4 players
  • Locking down industries where they are placed on the board (for advanced/heavier euro players)
  • Filling in players with "dummy players" that play against you on the board
  • Solo Variant that still gives the full game experience
  • The solo variant and dummy players can only be done through the use of the "Dummy Corp." Expansion, which is included for FREE with the game when pledging here on Kickstarter!

How to Play:

You are a captain of industry, and your job is to thwart the fast-approaching energy crisis. Regardless which captain of industry you become, you will have a unique ability that can be used on every turn of the game. Some abilities net you a better return on certain industries, others allow you to manipulate cards and other game components.

Being a captain of industry, you have all access to modern technologies such as biofuel, fossil fuel, hydroelectric, nuclear, solar, and wind--all of which have different sizes, costs, and benefits. Each player must make optimum use of their resources and the available hexagonal areas on the board to not only achieve a victory with generating enough energy in terawatt-hours (TWh), which are your victory points in the game, but to do so before time runs out and world goes dark.

In every round of play, each player will take a single turn. During this turn, you will take a series of 3 actions: draw a Grid card (to be played strategically now or later), be “paid” in the amount of energy credits shown on your environmental score track (this is a separate track from the TWh score track), and last step is to roll the territory die.

On rolling the territory die, you can pick which combinations of industries you would like to shape in that zone of the board. Each zone is a numerous of different permitting costs for the available industries, but keeps all the environmental and TWh score track gains the same between zones- this makes it simpler, but still realistic, to compare industries across zones, and also allows you the ability to quickly ascertain which industries have advantages/disadvantages depending on where you choose to build them.

Your choices in what you build and when you build them bring your odds of victory in Game of Energy!

Conclusion:

The game will end when you collected the amount of TWh needed to assure your energy portfolio is a good model for what will rid the world of an impending energy crisis. Once you reach this limit, the remaining current round of play is played out.

This board game will require some necessary text during a game, also player have to memorized some part like small crib sheet, but they are easily to remember. It does a great job making a very complex situation into an easy to understand, playable game!

 

Potentially saves 75% of energy in gaming PCs.

At present, dedicated PCs are usually equipped with high-end graphics cards, good processors, high-resolution displays and large memory drives. This, in turn, causes a huge increase in power consumption. To solve this problem and find a way to save billions of dollars on electricity bills, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been studying the potential energy savings of this product line.

You Also Might Like: how many forms of energy are there

First, scientists analyzed thousands of computer game consoles and their energy consumption globally. After collecting data, 2.5% of the computers accounted for 20% of the total computer power consumption. However, energy efficiency measures show that people can still save 75% of their energy consumption, equivalent to 120 TWh ($ 18 billion). That will happen when manufacturers pay more attention to the use of higher energy efficiency components during assembly.

In addition, the researchers said that the current assembly just focuses on finding the best components for game processing, not really pay attention to energy efficiency. If manufacturers have more specific instructions on the energy efficiency of components such as hard drives, peripherals, etc., assemblers will be able to create saving energy products.

The study also showed that only by modifying the assembly model saved 50% of the power consumption without further deeper steps. In addition, when combined with the operating mode, saving efficiency can reach 25% more. And one more thing, in addition to bringing about saving effect, this also makes the system of game computers run more smoothly.

"Our research has shown that there is no need to spend too much on developing new technologies, but just change your mind and take it easy", says Evan Mills, the leader of research team. Think of it, we are fully capable of making breakthroughs in energy efficiency in the gaming industry with new hardware.

How many forms of energy are there? (Review)

We use energy to cook foods, to make ice, to move cars along roads, and boats throng water. But are we all know exactly what energy is and how many forms of energy around us? Let’s discuss about this.

Scientists define energy as the ability to do work and nowadays, human have learned how to change energy from one form to another for many different purposes.

So the question is how many forms of energy and what are they?

We separate forms of energy into two basic categories:

  • Potential energy
  • Kinetic energy

1. Potential energy:

Potential energy is stored energy and the energy of position.

1.1. Chemical energy is energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules. Batteries, biomass, petroleum, natural gas, and coal are examples of chemical energy. When people burn wood in a fireplace or burn gasoline in a car's engine, Chemical energy is converted to thermal energy.

You can see more cool stories about energy at: 17 energy technology of the future

1.2. Mechanical energy is energy stored in objects by tension. Compressed springs and stretched rubber bands are examples of stored mechanical energy.

Examples: Striking a match, combining vinegar and baking soda to form CO2 Gas, breaking light sticks releases chemical energy.

1.3. Nuclear energy is energy stored in the nucleus of an atom-the energy that holds the nucleus together. Plenty amounts of energy can be released when the nuclei are combined or split apart.

1.4. Gravitational energy is energy stored in an object's height. The higher and heavier the object, the more gravitational energy is stored. When people ride a bicycle down a steep hill and pick up speed, the gravitational energy is converting to motion energy. Hydropower is another example of gravitational energy, where gravity forces water down through a hydroelectric turbine to produce electricity.

1.5. Elastic energy can be stored mechanically in a compressed gas or liquid, a coiled spring, or a stretched elastic band. On an atomic scale, the stored energy is a temporary strain placed on the bonds between atoms, meaning there’s no permanent change to the material. These bonds absorb energy as they are stressed, and release that energy as they relax.

2. Kinetic energy:

Kinetic energy is the motion of waves, electrons, atoms, molecules, substances, and objects.

2.1. Radiant energy is electromagnetic energy that travels in transverse waves. Radiant energy includes visible light, x-rays, gamma rays, and radio waves. Light is one type of radiant energy. Sunshine is radiant energy, which provides the fuel and warmth for possibility of life on earth. Radiant energy can be converted to the chemical energy stored in plants through photosynthesis, the process by which plants and algae use the sun’s radiation to turn carbon dioxide gas into sugar and carbohydrates.

2.2. Thermal energy or heat, is the energy that comes from the movement of atoms and molecules in a substance. Heat increases with increases in the speed that these particles move. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy in the earth. We can’t see individual atoms vibrating, but we can feel their kinetic energies as temperature. When there’s a difference between the temperature of the environment and a system within it, thermal energy is transferred between them as heat.

2.3. Motion energy is energy stored in the movement of objects. The faster they move, the more energy is stored. It takes energy to get an object moving, and energy is released when an object slows down. An example of motion energy is a car crash. When a car comes to a total stop and releases all of its motion energy at once in an uncontrolled instant.

2.4. Sound is the movement of energy through substances in longitudinal (compression/rarefaction) waves. Sound is produced when a force causes an object or substance to vibrate. The energy is transferred through the substance in a wave. Typically, the energy in sound is smaller than in other forms of energy.

Examples: Voices, whistles, horns and musical instruments.

2.5. Electrical energy is delivered by tiny charged particles called electrons, typically moving through a wire. Lightning is an example of electrical energy in nature.

Engery Solutions Center.

The Clean Energy Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. It provides no-cost expert policy guidelines, webinars and learning training, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

The Solutions Center is an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM), a global forum to share best practices and promote policies and programs that encourage and facilitate the transition to a global clean energy economy.

1. Information about the Energy Solutions Center

The high-attendance webinars are designed in collaboration with global partner institutions, and engage diverse global audiences in interactive discussions on important clean energy policy topics covering energy efficiency, renewable energy, and energy access and transport issues.

We also offer e-learning courses, podcasts and videos. It teams with experts and organizations around the world to share diverse views and perspectives through webinars that often have several hundred participants. Past webinars are archived for viewing at any time.

For more specific training needs, the Solutions Center provides designed training and peer exchange programs on request.The Clean Energy Policy Briefs aim to legislators, decision makers, analysts working for government agencies and utility executives on current good practices, lessons learned and success stories.

2. Energy Solutions Center activities

Also The Solutions Center features a variety of collections from more than 3,000 clean energy resources, includes reports on best-practice policies, data and analysis tools for the benefit of policymakers.

Since it was launched in 2011, the experts have assisted more than 120 policymakers, representing countries, island nations, and regional organizations around the world. Experts have tackled diverse topics in critical areas such as energy efficiency, renewable energy, transportation, energy access, regulatory issues and integrated planning.

Recently, we worked with Australia’s Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics to release the Asia-Pacific Renewable Energy Assessment , it helps inform global energy dialogue with original research and analysis.

The Solutions Center has also issued reports on the next generation of renewable electricity policies, the integration of renewable energy in electric power markets, and policies to spur energy access. The Solutions Center combines the current and relevant information on clean energy policies.

These resources conclude emerging policy reports, upgrade policy data, and analysis tools such as the Indian Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy Database (IREEED) - a web-based database of India’s renewable energy and energy efficiency policies, regulations, and incentive programs.

Conclusion

To sum up, the Solutions Center provides access to the most relevant and current reports, data, and analysis tools related to clean energy policy, with more than 2,100 technical resources currently available. It provides policy briefs that summarize clean energy developments throughout the world, including the latest trends in financing, costs and policies.

It screens resources and posts those deemed most authoritative, objective, and relevant for busy policymakers and analysts. This includes studies of policy lessons and best practices organized by policy topic, analysis tools and policy data sets. Short summaries of key policy reports are provided with links to the full report bares no cost to the users.

Energy Hog Game

Energy Hog is an online environmental game designed for children learn how to save energy at home, consisting of 5 mini-games. People eventually learn how home energy improvements save cost, improve comfort and help the environment by becoming an ‘Energy Hog Buster’, using ‘Energy Hogs’ which are designed ‘half human’, half hog creatures that drain up the energy out of your home.

There are 5 different access levels involving separate parts of the home: bedroom, bathroom, kitchen, living room and attic. Each level involves exposing a full detailed ‘Hog Buster’, which explains another mini-game to play before you step to the next level.

You may like: transition games

Impression:

In the Bedroom, you will have to complete the maze, it will reveal ‘Bulb Hunter’, asking you to change bulbs within a limited time period.

The Bathroom is taking a ‘Whack-a-Hog’ where you use a shower brush to whack a water-guzzling hog, that helps to reduce water consumption; Players get fireplaces, attic energy efficiency, an Efficient Energy Hog Handbook containing energy tips for dishwashers, etc.

‘Wacky Windows’ will be revealed in the Living room. Players are required to engage in a race using a caulking gun to caulk the 4 corners of windows within an established time-frame.

In the Kitchen round, players will be challengedby the ‘Fridge Frenzy Game’ whereby refrigerator contents are mixedthen matching it in a timed memory game;

The Attic has players take part in their own ‘Attic Attack’ firing insulation at energy hogs.

Conclusion:

Agreat set of educational activities about sources of energy in this game help children acknowledge more important role in using energy wisely. It builds up the energy efficiency awareness in the home which promotes Energy Star R products. It also provides a home Energy Saver Audit. The game’s blue ‘hint’ box educates about energy efficiency.

 

The Energy Transition Games.

Today we will discuss about free simulation game   “The Energy Transition Games” to understand more the role of energy producer, energy provider or other related government party to maintain high quality of life to all civilian on the planet. New solutions for the energy system against this biggest challenge will be popped up during the game.

How to play:

At the Games, each player takes a different role within a complex energy system landscape. Each role has different responsibilities and decisions to make.You will be faced with dilemmas: should you prioritize your short-term individual benefit or invest in common objectives? Will your fellow players enable or defy you? Can you rely on their commitments?

But first, achieving your goals may not be easy.Energy prices, cost of change, energy demand, harsh competition and consumer satisfaction – they can all affect the outcomes of your decisions.Limited financial resources, time limit, dysfunctional communication, lack of full understanding of the entire system – all of these might jeopardize achieving your goals.It is necessary to exchange information, cooperation, system views on energy production and consumption.

Within an open world game, all players are free to interact with each other, make deals, come up with new policies and deliver innovative, out-of-the-box solutions. This game not only simulates the real-life complexity of the transition but also creates an environment where innovation is born.

Role:

Embedded mechanisms in Game Transformation Energy mimics the changes that decision-makers face in converting fossil-fuel energy to renewable energy sources.

Energy producers, like every business, boost profit. However, if they ignore their impact on the environment they may cause the climate change catastrophe.

Technology start-ups commercialize clean energy technologies.However, there is a lot of uncertainty and risk involved in commercializing technology and so such a process may not always be successful.

Energy provider faces a challenge of balancing an increasing energy demand and energy supply (energy from renewable sources is dependent atmospheric).

The whole energy system is regulated by the Ministry of Energy in coordination with other government agencies. The government should consider the pressure of energy consumers who care that they will have to pay for energy conversion.

Impression:

The games connect the experiences and understandings about the complexity of the system-wide change to the renewable energy sources. It helps players explore transition strategies to new energy sources and also learn how to navigate through the challenges of energy transition.

Additionally, the players are able to develop their skills for effective communication and collaboration which helps them learn how to foster and integrate both technological and social energy innovations

Conclusion:

The Energy Transition Game is a role-playing game that allows players to experience the challenges of moving from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. In this microcosm, where energy is needed to ensure the safety of citizens, you can shape the future of the energy industry.

Become an energy producer, energy supplier, technology startup, one of the government agencies or civil society organizations and create new solutions for power systems! The game has so many benefits for its player, join and share your awareness.

Nuclear power - the most prominent future energy source of mankind

Energy sources are always the top concern of human. Human should have plans to exploit new energy sources in the future. At present, humans still rely on fossil fuels for energy. Although we also have other sources of energy such as hydropower, wind energy, solar energy ... but no energy source is enough to replace fossil fuels. However, we still have an extremely potent source of energy, which is the fusion nucleus.

Fossil fuels are good for human consumption, but they are slowly dying out

For fossil fuels in general and for oil, coal and natural gas in particular, these fuels are not renewable and human can - not produce them. And now humans are using fossil fuels to a great extent, surpassing the self-healing level of these fuels in nature. In addition, there is the problem of environmental pollution - a bad impact of fossil fuels.

When burning fossil fuels, impurities are released and mixed into the air. This causes environmental pollution. In addition, poor waste treatment plants also lead to pollution of water sources such as rivers and lakes.

Environmental pollution is a major limitation of fossil fuels

For other energy sources such as hydropower, wind energy, solar power, etc., it costs a lot to exploit, but humans are dependent on nature when usingthese resources. The simplest example is that we will get very little solar energy at night.

Other sources of power are not strong enough to replace fossil fuels

Fortunately, we have a better option, which is nuclear reaction. These are very strong and powerful reactions. Although for some people, when talking about nuclear, they are concerned because of the disaster has happened in the past. But that is inevitable. Ignoring all of this, the United States tested the world's first nuclear reaction in 1952, called Ivy Mike. Since then, human beings have always sought to develop and exploit this energy better and safer.

Nowadays, nuclear processes take place in a controlled environment, human has mastered. We have discovered four methods:

Inertial Confinement Fusion: We take a hydrogen pellet and use the laser to surround it and compress it. This compression causes the hydrogen nucleus to bind together, producing helium and, most importantly - it releases energy.

Magnetic Confinement Fusion: In addition to the compression method, we have another method, which is using electromagnetic force. We will use the magnetic field to combine the materials and make the nuclear reaction happen.

Magnetized Target Fusion: In this method, a superheated plasma is generated but is magnetized, and compression from the pistons around it produces a nuclear fusion from within.

Subcritical Fusion: With this method, we will use a subcritical fission reaction to produce a nuclear reaction.

The two methods 1 and 2 have long been researched by humans while methods 3 and 4 are new methods of detection.

Generating energy while keeping the environment clean is a huge challenge for mankind. Nuclear reaction will be a way for humans to generate energy without causing adverse effects on the environment. However, this approach is not well received because there are many countries in the world that are concerned about it.

17 energy technology of the future

Policy Horizons Canada analysts have listed 17 new energy technologies that will change the world in the future. These 17 technologies are divided into three areas: storage, smart grid and power generation.

You Also Might Like: Engery solutions Center

 Storage area

1. Fuel cell

Fuel cells change the chemical energy of a fuel (eg hydrogen) directly into electrical energy. Unlike batteries or batteries, the fuel cell does not lose power and does not have the ability to charge. Fuel cells operate continuously when fuel (hydrogen) and oxidants are introduced from outside. Fuel cells are energy devices with almost zero emissions. It is "planned" to use for stationary power stations as well as large passenger vehicles such as buses.

Prediction: Fuel cell will become popular in 2018.

2. Lithium-air batteries

Advanced material technologies allow the creation of high-capacity Lithium-air (Li-air) batteries. The abundant energy from Li-air is comparable to that of kerosene and up to five times that of traditional Li-ion batteries. By using oxygen in the air instead of oxidants, Li-air batteries help extend the operation of electric vehicles.

Prediction: Lithium-air batteries will become popular in 2020.

3. Storage and transportation of hydrogen

It is assumed that there will be new inventions in transporting and storing hydrogen in replacement of electricity in the current power transmission network. Can be combined with other energy transfer methods to minimize losses and maximize storage capacity.

Prediction: This technology will be popular in 2022.

4. Heat storage

Heat is accumulated from solar collectors or from thermal power plants. Heat is then stored in insulated warehouses for various purposes such as heating up living space, serving the energy needs of families.

Prediction: This technology will be popular in 2024.

Smart grid area

5. First generation smart grid

The electrical meters will record the power consumption in real time, then transfer the information obtained to the power station for monitoring and billing. The smart grid has the ability to balance the load remotely, meaning it can automatically turn off unnecessary devices at peak times.

Prediction: This technology will be popular in 2018.

6. Dispersed electricity

Electricity is generated and distributed from many small facilities instead of large scale power plants. Large power plants are capable of meeting the nation's electricity needs but the transmission process will result in waste of electricity, which does not meet the needs of the network quickly and efficiently.

Forecast: this will become the main trend in 2021.

7. Intelligent Energy Network

The hypothesis is that there will be a global energy network that works just like the current Internet model. That is, it operates in a common standard and generates heat, power, gas (and possibly hydrogen) distribution channels from local and remote sources, meeting the needs of families around the world.

Expected to become reality by 2020.

Power generation area

8. Tide turbine

This is a form of hydropower with the ability to convert tidal energy into electricity. Currently, tidal turbine technology is being used on a small scale but in the near future it will be used more widely.

Expected to be available in 2018.

9. External combustion engine (small stirling motor)

This is a high - performance heat engine that converts thermal energy into energy. The stirling motors work on many heat sources: from solar energy, chemical reactions to nuclear reactions. It is more efficient than internal combustion engines. It is stable, does not require much maintenance and does not cause noise.

With rising energy prices, Stirling engines are being considered for inclusion in renewable energy plants.

Forecasting will become popular in 2026.

10. Robot positioning solar panels

The robots are very compact and able to change the position of the solar panel depending on the weather conditions. Using robots will be more effective than attaching positioning devices to each panel.

Expected to be popular from 2018.

11. Second generation biofuels

New biofuel technologies such as cellulosic ethanol and biodiesel algae in the future will become the main fuel for oil substitution. Biofuels have the advantage of being environmentally friendly, without the greenhouse effect.

Forecasting the use of biofuels will become popular in 2018.

12. Optical glass

This is a type of glass that integrates photovoltaic cells that allow the absorption of infrared light and some other types of light to turn into electricity. In the future, power supply for a whole building can be taken right from the system of glass doors on the front and on the roof of the building.

Expected to become popular by 2020.

13. Third generation biofuels

The third generation of biofuels will be developed based on new technologies that are far from the present. Genetic engineering in the future will be carried out in non - traditional ways to create new biofuels. For example, one can produce hydrogen from algae, or produce energy - rich furan for motorized vehicles.

It is expected that the third generation of biofuels will become popular in 2024.

14. Receive solar energy from outer space

In the future, humans will use space stations to collect solar energy and then return to Earth in the form of microwaves. In space, the transfer of solar energy will not be affected by atmospheric filtration effects.

Expected to become popular in 2027.

15. Small scale nuclear reaction

Small scale nuclear reactors will be used in the future. These kilns are only a few dozen meters long, which can be easily transported and installed. At present, these kilns only provide 10 MW, but in the near future can be increased to 50 MW.

Forecasts will become common in 2023.

16. Consistency

This is a new fusion energy technology being developed. This technology produces nuclear fusion reactions by heating and compressing the fuel, usually a mixture of deuterium and tritium.

Forecasts will become popular in 2021.

17. Thorium nuclear reaction

Thorium chemistry will be used as fuel for conventional nuclear reactors. Thorium is also used to produce nuclear fuel in regenerative reactors. The advantage of thorium is that the waste lasts for less than 10 to 10,000 times the current radioactive waste. The thorium does not need to be enriched like uranium.

Forecasting will become popular in 2026.

What is the biggest energy source of the future?

Scientists are working to improve green energy, improve the environment and reduce dependence on oil and other fossil fuels.

Some predicted that in the future will be the hydrogen economy, but many experts say that solar energy is the right path.

A number of projects involving "high wind turbines" or "antimatter engines" are also considered as future energy sources. In this article, I will introduce you to the energy sources that are and will be used in the near future.

1. Energy from the sun

According to a report by the International Energy Agency, by 2050, the sun could become the largest source of electricity, more than fossil fuels, wind and nuclear energy.

Back in Australia in 2006, a giant 1km solar tower with 32 gas turbines (total capacity of 200 MW) was put into operation. This solar system is surrounded by a giant greenhouse that heats the air to rotate the turbines around the tower.

Experts estimate that power plants will be able to generate 200 megawatts of electricity and reduce the amount of greenhouse gases by 700,000 tons per year. And most recently, Topaz solar power plant with a capacity of 550 megawatts with 9 million photovoltaic panels, covering more than 24 hectares in California, USA. This is considered to be the largest solar power in the world today and Topaz provides electricity to about 160,000 households.

The solar system does not require any additional fuel to operate and the impact of environmental pollution is almost nonexistent. Sunlight can be saved as heat for immediate use or converted into electricity. In addition, the technology allows the conversion of light into electrical energy through the photovoltaic effect. The limitations of the solar system include high initial costs and large space requirements. For most "alternative sources of energy" to replace solar energy, efficiency may be affected by air pollution and weather that reduces the amount of sunlight.

2. Energy from Coal

Coal has been a source of energy for the industrial revolution and it still plays a huge role in meeting the world's energy needs. The main advantage of coal is that it is abundant enough to supply the world in the next 200 to 300 years with current consumption. Due to the large reserves, coal has high economic value and easy to exploit.

However, the use of this material creates many impurities such as sulfur and nitrogen that mix into the air or can combine with water in the air to form acid rain. Coal combustion also produces large amounts of carbon dioxide, which, according to scientists, is contributing to global warming.

3. Energy from Wind

Wind energy is an indirect form of solar energy. Using wind energy is one of the methods of gathering energy known from ancient times. The concept of using windmills is stepping up as scientists are trying to create electricity in the sky by floating a windmill at a height of 4.5 kilometers in the atmosphere. The system is equipped with four propellers and two turbines to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind power now accounts for only 0.1% of the world's electricity needs, but that number is expected to grow as fast and one of the forms of clean energy in the future. The expansion of wind power is also difficult because the system depends on the location of the strong wind.

Fears indicate that wind farms may affect local weather, but this has not been thoroughly studied. Scientists hope that the use of windmills in the sky will address these constraints because it is a strong and continuous wind.

4. Energy from Oil

This fuel is known by some as black gold, showing its importance to humans. The great nations of the world rely on oil, and this is also the source of many wars. One of the reasons that gasoline and oil is so valuable is that it can be transformed into a variety of products, not only as an energy source but also as a number of other important products of high economic value.

This is also one of the sources of fossil energy that is "large" but not renewable. Some scientists predict that oil production will peak in the near future, and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) says oil prices will not be able to surpass $ 100 a barrel in next ten years.

Like coal and natural gas, oil is relatively cheap compared to alternative sources of energy but its use comes with significant environmental damage. Using oil produces large amounts of carbon dioxide, and oil spills can harm ecosystems and are very difficult to clean.

5. Energy from Biomass fuel

Biomass energy, or biofuel, includes substances that contain the chemical energy stored in organic matter. Biomass is waste from agriculture (straw, bagasse, shell, corn fiber ...), forest waste (dried leaves, wood chips ...). Biomass fuels can be solid, liquid, gaseous ... burned to release energy such as ethanol or into biogas.

But unlike some other renewable sources, biomass energy is not really clean because organic fuels produce large amounts of carbon dioxide. In addition to being widely used, people have to find ways to compensate by planting fast-growing trees and grasses for use as fuel supplies. Scientists are also experimenting with the use of bacteria to manipulate biomass and produce hydrogen for fuel. This is a rather interesting alternative but interesting source of biofuels in the process of heat transfer (TCP). Unlike ordinary natural fuels, TCP can convert virtually any organic matter into kerosene and water, but the amount of greenhouse gases that can be reduced is not reduced.

6. Energy from Hydroelectric

Hydropower currently accounts for 20% of the world's electricity. Up until recently, hydropower has been argued that water power is a rich natural resource that requires no additional fuel and no pollution. Recent studies, however, show that some of the challenges posed by hydroelectric dams can cause significant amounts of carbon dioxide and methane through the decomposition of submerged vegetation materials.

One drawback of the dam is that people living around are often displaced. In the case of China, the largest dam in the world when completed in 2009, 1.9 million people have been displaced and countless historic sites have been flooded and disappeared. Improper damming will alter ecosystems in the area and is one of the causes of droughts and floods. This is a limitation of hydropower.

7. Energy from Ocean energy

Oceans cover 70% of the surface of the Earth, and water is a natural solar collector. The conversion of thermal energy of the ocean (OTEC) to exploit this energy collector and use the temperature difference between the surface of water heated by sunlight and the source of water energy below the depth of the ocean to generate electricity. The OTEC factory is divided into three categories:

Closed Cycle: A liquid with a low boiling point such as ammonia heated with warm seawater. The steam generated is used to operate the turbine generator and then is cooled with cold sea water. But the evaporator and condenser of this system must use a bulky heat exchanger, consume a large amount of metal, and difficult to maintain.

Open Cycle: Similar to the closed OTEC cycle, except for the absence of low intermediate liquids (such as propane, isobutane, freon, ammonia ...). The system makes boiling water in the evaporator and converts into steam. Steam runs from the turbine nozzle to generate electricity. Breathing from the turbine into the condenser is cooled by cold sea water.

Hybrid Cycle: Closed OTEC cycles are used to generate electricity, which then creates the low pressure environment required for the opening cycle.

The OTEC plant can increase fresh water supplies. In addition, sea water rich in nutrients from the ocean floor can be used to culture microorganisms and marine plants. The main limitation of OTEC is that the conversion of heat energy into electricity is too low when the system operates on a small temperature difference, usually around 20 ° C.

8. Energy from Nuclear energy

Albert Einstein said that the boundary between matter and energy is not clear. Energy can be created by atoms - the process of splitting or combining is called fission and fusion respectively. Radioactive fission is harmful and generates large amounts of radioactive material, which has the effect of thousands of years and can destroy entire ecosystems if leaked. The bigger concern is that nuclear power has been used as a formidable weapon.

At present, most nuclear power plants use fission, which requires large amounts of energy to produce and maintain at high temperatures. The idea of fusion sound synthesis - technically known as fusion inertia - is derived from a sonolumi - nescence. The principle here is to use loudspeakers attached to a liquid filled tank and then transmit pressure waves, which stimulate the movement of the sound waves. These bubbles grow and break, creating visible flashes, lasting no more than 50 picoseconds. The foam produces temperature and pressure that can reach the fusion startup level. Scientists are also working on a way to produce controlled fusion reactions by pushing "heavy" hydrogen ions into a strong electric field.

9. Energy from Fuel cells

At the time of its appearance, hydrogen fuel cells were considered a perfect substitute for fossil fuels. Scientists can create electricity using hydrogen and oxygen without affecting the environment. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles not only deliver better performance than internal combustion engines, but their unique emissions are water.

Unfortunately, while hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, most of it is attached to molecules like water. That means pure hydrogen must be produced by other sources of energy - which in many cases is related to fossil fuels. Another problem with hydrogen is that it can not be compressed easily or securely, and requires large tanks to store. In addition, hydrogen atoms tend to leak through the container material.

10. Energy from the Antimatter

Antimatter is a concept in physics, made up of fundamental antiparticles such as electrons, neutrons, etc. In theory, if antimatter encounters matter, it will cause explosion and resolution. The massive energy, calculated by Einstein's famous equation, E = mc2.

Antimatter has been used in medical imaging technology called positron emission tomography (PET), but its use as a potential fuel source remains in the field of science fiction. Antimatter can be produced in the laboratory, but currently accounts for only a very small amount and at an extremely high cost. Even if the problem of production can be solved, it is still a difficult question to answer as to how to store something that tends to self-destruct when exposed to ordinary matter and so to harness the power generated.

Exploiting Earth's geothermal energy

The geothermal energy supply is stable and it is less damaging to the environment than the use of fossil fuels or nuclear fuel.

According to the Epoch Times, geothermal energy can be underground (where temperatures are steady at 10-16 ° Celsius), hot water and rock deeper in the ground, or very deep melting magma beneath Earth's surface.The use of geothermal energy is quite diverse, such as using underground hot water to directly heat buildings, use water for human consumption, or pump water and hot steam to activate the turbine and create electricity.

National Geographic says geothermal power plants use three main methods to produce electricity: dry steam, flash steam, and binary cycles. New Zealand, Indonesia, the Philippines, the United States and Mexico now have commercial geothermal plants.

The dry-steam plant uses cracks in the ground, leading directly high-temperature steam (more than 235 degrees Celsius) through the pipe to the turbine of the generator. The power plant will absorb hot water under high pressure (over 182 degrees Celsius) and convert it to colder water with low pressure. This process creates steam that turns the turbine to generate electricity.

The binary cycle power plant uses hot water (geothermal) with an average temperature of 107 to 182 degrees Celsius. Hot water is led through the heat exchanger, evaporating the secondary liquid (low boiling point far more than water, such as isobutane or isopentane). Steam of secondary liquid used to run the generator. Binary systems are a relatively closed cycle, so there is almost no greenhouse gas emissions. Geothermal experts predict that this will be the main technical solution for geothermal power generation in the future.

Geothermal power supplies are more stable and less environmentally damaging than the use of fossil fuels or nuclear fuel. The environmental impact of geothermal energy use is negligible and is easily overcome if planning well.

Geothermal liquids can contain gas and heavy metals, but most geothermal power systems that humans use will return them underground. Harvest operations are also planned to avoid mixing geothermal liquids with groundwater, while removing adverse effects on nearby natural landscapes, such as hot springs. Some geothermal plants produce small amounts of CO2, but binary systems do not emit greenhouse gases at all.

Another controversial method is being tested to collect geothermal energy like "fracking" technology for oil and gas extraction. Water is pumped into the geothermal well, creating enough pressure to break the rock, releasing heat to produce hot water, steam and turning the turbine of the generator.

The scientists also considered the urban heat island effect as a source of geothermal energy. Urban areas are warmer than in rural areas (both above and below ground), due to the influence of buildings, basements, drainage and wastewater systems. Geothermal pumps in urban areas can provide heat for buildings in the winter and cool them in the summer.

 

Learn about Methane Hydrate - a new source of energy in the future

Energy scientists have calculated that fossil energy on Earth can only be exploited for about 60 years, which is exhausted. In the development effort, people are looking for new sources of energy to replace. Fortunately, the Earth has yet another source of energy that is Methane Hydrate, which can provide mankind with an enormous amount of energy for human use within the next 2,000 years.

What is Methane Hydrate?

Methane Hydrate (Natural hydrate or gas hydrate), formed from natural gases such as methane, ethane, propane and water under high pressure (over 30 atm) and low temperature (below 0 ° C). Methane Hydrate is usually stable in deep sea conditions of at least 300m or more, oceanic islands and permanent glaciers, in the form of solid bodies like small snowballs.

Methane Hydrate is a huge source of energy, every 1m3 of fire tape releases about 164m3 of methane (2 to 5 times higher than natural gas, clean, not polluting the environment because it is frozen hydrate, less impurities). Methane Hydrate come in different colors, such as white, yellow, brown, red, gray or blue. There are more than 90 countries in the world with burning fire. The countries with the largest firewood reserves are: Canada, Russia, USA, India, Japan, China. Methane Hydrate also has its drawbacks. Formed at low temperatures and low pressures, changing pressure or temperatures to around 1 ° C to 20 ° C would release methane, causing global warming, causing tsunamis. Especially, in the situation of rapid climate change, it is easy to make Methane Hydrate release energy. Therefore Methane Hydrate is very difficult to exploit.

How to exploit and use Methane Hydrate?

People argues that this could be the cause of breakdowns for sea-going ships and aircraft in the air, by the large amount of methane generated when it decays and reduces the density of seawater, reducing the density of air, reduced the lift, causing the boat to sink, the aircraft is falling. For the above reasons, the exploitation and use of Methane Hydrate safety and firefighting tape is a very difficult problem for scientists, just as controlling nuclear power. Without good control, methane and carbon dioxide (produced when Methane Hydrate is disintegrated) are a powerful source of greenhouse gases. The difficulty is to create a pipeline system and concentrate methane gas when Methane Hydrate decomposes (by reducing pressure is the most economical). At present, Russia is exploiting Siberia, but still in the way of natural gas, so the results are limited.

Russia, China, America, Japan ... are countries are urgently seeking technology to exploit Methane Hydrate. Canada has successfully extracted methane from Methane Hydrate on land. Japan invested $ 127 million in the Methane Hydrate mining project in southwestern Tokyo. But until now, the technology for exploiting Methane Hydrate has not been identified and it remains a big challenge for the human. Scientists are also studying the mechanism for the formation of methane hydrate and the rules for the distribution of mines, the most effective way to exploit and use this precious resource.

Progress Energy may be giving me another encouragement to move Off Grid

Today I got a letter in the mail from Progress Energy about their Energy Wise program where homeowners can voluntarily allow them to install equipment which would allow them to switch off some of our appliances (air conditioning/heater/water heater) during peak demand times. In exchange for this they are offering up to $75 yearly credit. The peak demand times vary by the appliance (heater/water heater was 6AM-9AM and a stretch in the evening 5PM-9PM I think) (air conditioning was about 1pm-6pm) Now, they say in the notice that it’s entirely voluntary and it would be switched off for 15 minutes at a time for no more than 4 hours. (This last part was not written clearly, does that mean no consecutive blocks of 15 minutes and the total would be no more than 4 hours, or is it possible that it could be consecutive blocks up to 4 hours(?)) I’m all for saving power. I’ve got a kill-a-watt meter and from time to time audit things around the house. We’ve tried to resist going to the air conditioning this year and last…. unplug the water heater when we’re away for long enough and really try to save where we can.

But, I don’t want to proverbially turn the keys over to the power company to switch things off when they think demand is too high. I’m sorry, that’s not their business. Their business is supply, I’ll take care of controlling my demand and if someone else doesn’t, then they’ll just have a high bill to pay won’t they?

Now, like I said, this is voluntary (for now) and there are limits on the peak hours they’ve defined. (And you can pick 2 calendar dates to opt out of the switching off and weekends aren’t covered….) I imagine the terms could easily change (and continued use means you agree to the changes just like with everything else these days.)

It kind of reminds me when Progress Energy wrote to us and gave us this great offer…. Our power bill ranged at that time from around 60 a month to 90 a month depending on the season and weather when we received an offer from them to never have a surprise in our power bill again by prorating our power bill we could pay the same amount every month. Their magic number that they had calculated for us was $92 a month for 12 months and then if it turned out our usage was different we could get an adjusted rate for the next 12 months (up or down). What was amazing to me is that their total was just a shade larger than our largest bill in the last 12 months had been….. nice racket in the power business isn’t it?

Well…. this has all had me thinking about the incentives to really go off grid. Who knows, at some point power companies may not make such things as shutting off your appliances in peak periods an option. It may sometime become a mandatory agreement. With all the power options these days for alternative energy, solar panels, geothermal heating, some people can take advantage of wind or microhydro power as well… it just makes me think that the massive power grids days may be numbered. I’d like to look at all the tax incentives and see if there’s any difference in claiming them if you’re connected to the grid or not, but the coming years may see an explosion in off-grid power installs!

Along these lines I saw that researchers at UC-Berkley I believe had come up with a material that could be as much as 10x cheaper than silicon for solarvoltaic panels. There are now several companies that are doing similar, cheaper approaches to photovoltaics I’m REALLY looking forward to seeing more of these become publicly available. (So far, one company I know of is/was under military contract and their products were not available for sale to the public.)

Oh… one other thought on progress energy’s energy wise program…. according to their Florida website they say most people that have joined say that they don’t even notice when the interruptions are. Personally…. I notice that “most people” aren’t home much during the day/evening…. I wonder if they polled people that work at/from home?

DIY Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

This is a neat project. A site called hackaday posted this project. It’s essentially a homemade wind generator (generates electricity from wind.) It’s not one of those large windmill style turbines that you might have seen. This is a vertical design. They’ve sliced pvc pipe lengthwise in half to catch the wind. One advantage of a design like this is that it would work with wind from ANY direction. Their design drives a small DC motor. (DC motors can be used two directions…. hook up a current and get motion or supply motion and get current…)

This is one project that I may put on my to do list. It looks like it could be enough to keep a few batteries charged at least. I haven’t found an estimate of how much wind it would take to turn it. (That MAY be the real catch.)

Insulating around Power Outlets

I’ve been on my own personal campaign to tighten up air leakage around our house. Busy caulking windows and trying to find ways to blunt that cool air from getting in and the warm air from getting out.

This evening I was thinking about the power outlets. I’ve noticed that some of our outlets on the exterior walls are a bit drafty. Since you want to be careful around an electrical outlet I’ve been wondering about safe ways to insulate around the outlets. Fortunately I’ve found some very good tutorials on what to look for and how to do it.

Fortunately, as you can see from these instructions it is both cheap and really easy to do this. They make foam insulators that are sized to wall outlets with punches for either a light switch opening or outlet openings.

First you should cut off power to the outlet at your fuse or breaker box. Please do this, you never know when the screwdriver may slip and make things interesting in “short” order!

Then it’s as simple as taking the outlet cover off, pushing out the precut opening in the foam insert. Place it carefully to line up with the outlets and replace the outlet cover. Then you should be able to switch the power back on to the outlet and you’ll have a tighter insulated house!

Worlds Largest Solar Heating and Cooling System to be Installed in Fletcher, NC

I saw this on the news last night, it looks like Fletcher, North Carolina is going to be home to the worlds largest solar heating and cooling system. A company called Vanir Solar Construction is building the system. They were previously known as Appalachian Solar Energy before being bought by the Vanir Solar Construction company. The second largest system is installed in the Olympic Village in Beijing China.

Appalachian Energy started out in 2003 and operates a small hydroelectric dam in Madison County which powers around 600 homes. As I understand this solar install will be in the Fletcher Business Park.

The BoGo light

I thought this was an interesting flashlight – basically it’s designed to be a utility light for those places that don’t ordinarily have an abundance of lighting choices, but it looks like it would make a great emergency, utility light here as well. The idea is that it’s solar chargable, has LED lights for the lighting source, can run in low/medium/high beam mode. When you buy one, they give one through their affiliate organizations to places that need them. The batteries charge in 8-10 hours of full sun, there’s an auto switch off when the batteries are almost flat, niteglow strip to find it easily in the dark, there is a mechanism to switch it off in sunlight (meaning that they could be used as a trail or path light as well.

All in all, it looks rugged, has a carabineer clip and looks like a really well designed product.

Bloom Energy – the Bloom Box Energy Server

Alternative Energy is a booming area right now, there is a great deal of interest in new and different ways to provide energy. Really, there should be. It’s nothing less than a national security issue when we have so much of our energy needs imported from overseas. Imported from places that don’t have our best interests at heart. That’s why a new launch of something like Bloom Energy’s new fuel cell approach get’s so much buzz. This week they introduced us to the concept of the energy server. Which is, I think a clever way to market their new offering.

Bloom Energy had been teasing the world with a countdown to the launch of their new product. The bloom box, or bloom energy server takes up about the size of a parking space and can generate 100kW of power. Day and night. It’s a fuel cell and if you need more capacity you simply add another unit, or another or another. 100kW they describe as enough power to supply about 100 houses or a small office building. Of course, your coverage will vary depending on actual consumption.

It’s not a cheap box mind you, but the companies that have tried out the units they claim to be saving on their power costs. Companies like Ebay, Google, Coca-Cola, Fedex are among those that have been trying out the device. Google I would imagine (along with any other companies needing data center space) has more of a reason to look for cheap electricity. Power costs are high when you run a datacenter of hundreds of computers. Finding a cheaper way to power them will translate into more money for companies like Google.

What’s further exciting is the promise that within a few years, they will have a device about the size of a brick that you could purchase for what they estimate will be around $3000 that would be enough to power the average house. Again, your mileage will vary. Some houses consume more electricity, some less. Still, the promising of combining multiple units means that you have flexibility to scale up your “energy servers”.

In some ways this could make it more possible to truly be off grid, although I think the availability of the grid is probably an important thing. This winter we lost power to a large snowstorm and were without power about 3-4 days. Heat is our main problem with winter power outages because we need electricity for most of our heating options. A generator is relatively cheap, but impractical to keep running for the amount of time that we need heat. Devices like this could mean that we would never notice an outage from a major storm.

There are lots of other reasons to envision keeping the grid even if more and more houses are their own energy production plants. There will always be times that you will use a bit more power than you expect and for those times you can draw power back from the grid. For that matter, there are also times that you use less power and THAT can be SOLD back to the power company. For our national security I see many advantages to a more diversified power generation structure like these devices could produce.

You should realize though that these energy servers do consume something to create energy. Biofuel is possible, but the more likely fuel at the present is Natural Gas. These fuels will combine with oxygen within the fuel cell to generate electricity. The fuel cell itself is made from one of the more abundant substances you could think of…. sand.